HUMAN JOINTS BONE STRUCTURE AND COMMON DISEASE

1.What is bone joint?

206 and 360 are the amount of bones and joints in an adult body, respectively. Everyday, we can move, work is because of musculoskeletal system, which includes skeleton – joints and muscle. Bone joint is where bones contact and connect to each other, however not only where we can move that contains bone joints. Depends on activity level, bone joints are divided into 3 big groups:

– Immobile joints (synarthrosis joint): Skull joints, facial bones…

– Semi-mobile joints (symphysis amphiarthrosis): spine joints, groin joints…

– Mobile joints (synovial joint): knee joints, elbow joints…

  1. Bone joint structure

Immobile joints have very small operating range or cannot operate at all because these bones fit together thanks to small saw tooth or bone edges over each other like fish scales so when muscles constrict, joints do not move. Skull joints, facial bones are typical example.

Semi-mobile joints are joints that in between the joints is only a cartilage disk, which makes those joints less flexible and have small operating margins. Semi-mobile joints include spinal and groin joints. We all know that dancers had to exercise from very early age, which is precisely because in children, the cartilage disks are very elastic, makes it easy for the back to bend or for the groin to splits. Once grow up and get old, the cartilage disks flatten, as a result it’s hard for the spine to move.

Mobile joint is the most flexible out of our 3 big bone joint groups, also the group under the most pressure from people’s activities. The reason for the sharp movements on a large scale lies at the structure of this joint type. The surface of each bone has a smooth layer of cartilage, glossy and elastic, to reduct the friction between two bones. In the middle is a mucus filled bag called the synovium. Synovial fluid containing electrolytes (Ca++, Na+, etc…), sugar and protein helps provide nutrients to the cartilage, joint disc, increase operational capabilities of joints, reducing friction surface. Outside the mobile joints are the supple and elastic ligaments that connect the two bones as a sealed enclosure called fibrous capsules. From these different physical characteristics that this type of joints can move easily

Joints can operate in three basic spindle perpendicular to each other:

  • Left-Right Axis: Perform folding and stretching movements
  • Front-Behind Axis: Perform spliting and closing movements
  • Top-Bottom Axis: Perform face down and face up movements

There are joints that operate on only one axis, for example the elbow joints that take care of bending and stretching. Some joints such as the wrist joints, joints between the toes and the first knuckle can operate orbiting two perpendicular axis fold-stretch and split-close. Shoulder joints, basin-shaped thigh joints because of their pompom shapes, are able to operate around three perpendicular axes on three planes: fold-stretch, split-close, swivel in-out and rotation.

  1. Bone joints common disease

There are quite a bit of diseases related to joints that we may encounter in daily life and work. Bone and joint pain disease is usually persistent and adversely affects patient health. These following 6 musculoskeletal disorders are more common:

Osteoarthritis: common in middle-aged and old people due to the aging process causing wear and tear in the joint cartilage, causing stiff joints and difficulty moving around. Characteristics of the disease are painful joint movement, less pain when resting, bi swelling, edema as some other diseases with different arthristis phenomena.

Arthritis: This is not a single disease but a group of disease which has common features including pain, inflammation, and limited movement of joints. The joints have pain caused by inflammatory signs (the pain ascending even when resting), accompanied by swelling, heat, redness inflamed area.

Rheumatoid arthritis (Chronic rheumatism): A chronic autoimmune disease affects the connective tissues of the body directly. The disease not only show the destruction in the joints leads to deformity but also affects many organ, systems in the body, causing systemic symptoms.

Gout: This disease is no stranger to the overweight “gentlemen”, excessive drinkers or too much protein diet. Gout comes with the sudden onset of throbing pain in the toes,ankle joints at midnight, then spread to other joints that patients cannot tolerate.

Neck shoulder pain and low back pain syndrome: A common problem faced by office workers, workers what has to sit in the same position for hours; neck shoulder pain is a neuromuscular disorder caused by the local and sudden rigidity from neurological dysfunction but not due to bones, joints, spine or intervertebral discs damage.

Most cases of low back pain do not have pathological causes, instead mainly stemming from poor posture in daily life, work or sports, it makes the lumber spine as well as the muscle groups defend the overworking, which in turn leads to tireness, the rest is a manifestation of lumbar disc herniation, degenerative vertebrae in the elderly.

Rheumatic fever: Rheumatic fever is a diseases acquired while having strep throat. If not treated thoroughly, after several weeks symptoms of arthritis will appear, especially to the large joints such as the knee, elbow joints, ankle, wrist.

Pain will be transferred from joints to joints without sequelae. The real danger is, it also causes permanent damage to the heart valves leading to heart failure. This is the reason why this diease is also known as the “low heart” disease.

 

 

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